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INDIAN BARE ACTS

THE ENFORCEMENT OF SECURITY INTEREST AND RECOVERY OF DEBTS LAWS (AMENDMENT) ACT, 2004

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THE ENFORCEMENT OF SECURITY INTEREST AND RECOVERY OF DEBTS LAWS (AMENDMENT)
ACT, 2004
An Act to amend the Securitisation and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest Act, 2002 and further to amend the Recovery of Debts Due to Banks and Financial Institutions Act, 1993 and the Companies Act, 1956.

Be it enacted by Parliament in the Fifty-fifth Year of the Republic of India as follows:–


CHAPTER I

PRELIMINARY

1. Short title and commencement

(1) This Act may be called the Enforcement of Security Interest and Recovery of Debts Laws (Amendment) Act, 2004.

(2) Save as otherwise provided in this Act, the provisions of this Act shall be deemed to have come into force on the 11th day of November, 2004.

 

CHAPTER II

AMENDMENTS TO THE SECURITISATION AND RECONSTRUCTION OF
FINANCIAL ASSETS AND ENFORCEMENT OF SECURITY
INTEREST ACT, 2002

2. Amendment of section 2

In section 2 of the Securitisation and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest Act, 2002 (54 of 2002) (hereafter in this Chapter referred to as the principal Act), in sub-section (1),–

(i)         after clause (h), the following clause shall be inserted, namely:–

‘(ha) “debt” shall have the meaning assigned to it in clause (g) of section 2 of the Recovery of Debts Due to Banks and Financial Institutions Act, 1993 (51 of 1993);’;

(ii)         in clause (j), the words “in accordance with the directions or guidelines issued by the Reserve Bank” shall be omitted;

(iii)        in clause (o), for the words “doubtful or loss asset in accordance with the directions or under guidelines relating to assets classifications issued by the Reserve Bank”, the following shall be substituted, namely:–

“doubtful or loss asset,–

(a)        in case such bank or financial institution is administered or regulated by any authority or body established, constituted or appointed by any law for the time being in force, in accordance with the directions or guidelines relating to assets classifications issued by such authority or body;

(b)        in any other case, in accordance with the directions or guidelines relating to assets classifications issued by the Reserve Bank;”;

(iv)        in clause (u), for the words “trustee or any asset management company making investment on behalf of mutual fund or provident fund or gratuity fund or pension fund”, the words, brackets and figures “trustee or securitisation company or reconstruction company which has been granted a certificate of registration under sub-section (4) of section 3 or any asset management company making investment on behalf of mutual fund” shall be substituted;

(v)         in clause (zd), for sub-clause (ii), the following sub-clause shall be substituted, namely:–

“(ii) securitisation company or reconstruction company, whether acting as such or managing a trust set up by such securitisation company or reconstruction company for the securitisation or reconstruction, as the case may be; or”.

3. Amendment of section 3

In section 3 of the principal Act, in sub-section (3), after clause (g), the following clause shall be inserted at the end, namely:–

“(h)       that securitisation company or reconstruction company has complied with one or more conditions specified in the guidelines issued by the Reserve Bank for the said purpose.”.

4. Amendment of section 4

In section 4 of the principal Act, in sub-section (2),–

(a)        the words “rejection of application for registration or” shall be omitted;

(b)        for the words “such order of rejection or cancellation”, the words “such order of cancellation” shall be substituted.

5. Insertion of new section 5A

After section 5 of the principal Act, the following section shall be inserted, namely:–

“5A. Transfer of pending applications to any one of Debts Recovery Tribunals in certain cases

(1) If any financial asset, of a borrower acquired by a securitisation company or reconstruction company, comprise of secured debts or more than one bank or financial institution for recovery of which such banks or financial institutions has filed applications before two or more Debts Recovery Tribunals, the securitisation company or reconstruction company may file an application to the Appellate Tribunal having jurisdiction over any of such Tribunals in which such applications are pending for transfer of all pending applications to any one of the Debts Recovery Tribunals as it deems fit.

(2) On receipt of such application for transfer of all pending applications under sub-section (1), the Appellate Tribunal may, after giving the parties to the application an opportunity of being heard, pass an order for transfer of the pending applications to any one of the Debts Recovery Tribunals.

(3) Notwithstanding anything contained in the Recovery of Debts Due to Banks and Financial Institutions Act, 1993 (51 of 1993), any order passed by the Appellate Tribunal under sub-section (2) shall be binding on all the Debts Recovery Tribunals referred to in sub-section (1) as if such order had been passed by the Appellate Tribunal having jurisdiction on each such Debts Recovery Tribunal.

(4) Any recovery certificate, issued by the Debts Recovery Tribunal to which all the pending applications are transferred under sub-section (2), shall be executed in accordance with the provisions contained in sub-section (23) of section 19 and other provisions of the Recovery of Debts Due to Banks and Financial Institutions Act, 1993 (51 of 1993) shall, accordingly, apply to such execution.”.

6. Amendment of section 7

In section 7 of the principal Act,–

(i)         after sub-section (2), the following sub-section shall be inserted, namely:–

“(2A)(a) The scheme for the purpose of offering security receipts under sub-section (1) or raising funds under sub-section (2), may be in the nature of a trust to be managed by the securitisation company or reconstruction company, and the securitisation company or reconstruction company shall hold the assets so acquired or the funds so raised for acquiring the assets, in trust for the benefit of the qualified institutional buyers holding the security receipts or from whom the funds are raised.

(b) The provisions of the Indian Trusts Act, 1882 shall, except in so far as they are inconsistent with the provisions of this Act, apply with respect to the trust referred to in clause (a) above.”;

(ii)         in sub-section (3), for the words “security receipts issued by such company”, the words “security receipts issued under a scheme by such company” shall be substituted.

7. Insertion of new section 12A

After section 12 of the principal Act, the following section shall be inserted, namely:–

“12A. Power of Reserve Bank to call for statements and information

The Reserve Bank may at any time direct a securitisation company or reconstruction company to furnish it within such time as may be specified by the Reserve Bank, with such statements and information relating to the business or affairs of such securitisation company or reconstruction company (including any business or affairs with which such company is concerned) as the Reserve Bank may consider necessary or expedient to obtain for the purposes of this Act.”.

8. Amendment of section 13

In section 13 of the principal Act,–

(i)         after sub-section (3), the following sub-section shall be inserted, namely:–

“(3A) If, on receipt of the notice under sub-section (2), the borrower makes any representation or raises any objection, the secured creditor shall consider such representation or objection and if the secured creditor comes to the conclusion that such representation or objection is not acceptable or tenable, he shall communicate within one week of receipt of such representation or objection the reasons for non-acceptance of the representation or objection to the borrower:

PROVIDED that the reasons so communicated or the likely action of the secured creditor at the stage of communication of reasons shall not confer any right upon the borrower to prefer an application to the Debts Recovery Tribunal under section 17 or the Court of District Judge under section 17A.”;

(ii)         in sub-section (4), for clause (b), the following clause shall be substituted, namely:–

“(b)       take over the management of the business of the borrower including the right to transfer by way of lease, assignment or sale for realising the secured asset:

PROVIDED that the right to transfer by way of lease, assignment or sale shall be exercised only where the substantial part of the business of the borrower is held as security for the debt:

PROVIDED FURTHER that where the management of whole of the business or part of the business is severable, the secured creditor shall take over the management of such business of the borrower which is relatable to the security for the debt;”.

9. Amendment of section 15

In section 15 of the principal Act, in sub-section (1), for the words “When the management of business of a borrower is taken over by a secured creditor”, the words, brackets, letters and figures “When the management of business of a borrower is taken over by a securitisation company or reconstruction company under clause (a) of section 9 or, as the case may be, by a secured creditor under clause (b) of sub-section (4) of section 13” shall be substituted.

10. Amendment of section 17

In section 17 of the principal Act,–

(a)   in sub-section (1),–

(i)         for the words “may prefer an appeal”, the words “may make an application along with such fee, as may be prescribed,” shall be substituted and shall be deemed to have been substituted with effect from the 21st day of June, 2002;

(ii)        after sub-section (1), the following proviso shall be inserted and shall be deemed to have been inserted with effect from the 21st day of June, 2002, namely:–

“PROVIDED that different fees may be prescribed for making the application by the borrower and the person other than the borrower.”;

(iii) after the proviso as so inserted, the following Explanation shall be inserted, namely:–

“Explanation : For the removal of doubts, it is hereby declared that the communication of the reasons to the borrower by the secured creditor for not having accepted his representation or objection or the likely action of the secured creditor at the stage of communication of reasons to the borrower shall not entitle the person (including borrower) to make an application to the Debts Recovery Tribunal under this sub-section.”;

(b)        for sub-sections (2) and (3), the following sub-sections shall be substituted, namely:–

“(2) The Debts Recovery Tribunal shall consider whether any of the measures referred to in sub-section (4) of section 13 taken by the secured creditor for enforcement of security are in accordance with the provisions of this Act and the rules made thereunder.

(3) If, the Debts Recovery Tribunal, after examining the facts and circumstances of the case and evidence produced by the parties, comes to the conclusion that any of the measures referred to in sub-section (4) of section 13, taken by the secured creditor are not in accordance with the provisions of this Act and the rules made thereunder, and require restoration of the management of the business to the borrower or restoration of possession of the secured assets to the borrower, it may by order, declare the recourse to any one or more measures referred to in sub-section (4) of section 13 taken by the secured creditors as invalid and restore the possession of the secured assets to the borrower or restore the management of the business to the borrower, as the case may be, and pass such order as it may consider appropriate and necessary in relation to any of the recourse taken by the secured creditor under sub-section (4) of section 13.

(4) If, the Debts Recovery Tribunal declares the recourse taken by a secured creditor under sub-section (4) of section 13, is in accordance with the provisions of this Act and the rules made thereunder, then, notwithstanding anything contained in any other law for the time being in force, the secured creditor shall be entitled to take recourse to one or more of the measures specified under sub-section (4) of section 13 to recover his secured debt.

(5) Any application made under sub-section (1) shall be dealt with by the Debts Recovery Tribunal as expeditiously as possible and disposed of within sixty days from the date of such application:

PROVIDED that the Debts Recovery Tribunal may, from time to time, extend the said period for reasons to be recorded in writing, so, however, that the total period of pendency of the application with the Debts Recovery Tribunal, shall not exceed four months from the date of making of such application made under sub-section (1).

(6) If the application is not disposed of by the Debts Recovery Tribunal within the period of four months as specified in sub-section (5), any party to the application may make an application, in such form as may be prescribed, to the Appellate Tribunal for directing the Debts Recovery Tribunal for expeditious disposal of the application pending before the Debts Recovery Tribunal and the Appellate Tribunal may, on such application, make an order for expeditious disposal of the pending application by the Debts Recovery Tribunal.

(7) Save as otherwise provided in this Act, the Debts Recovery Tribunal shall, as far as may be, dispose of the application in accordance with the provisions of the Recovery of Debts Due to Banks and Financial Institutions Act, 1993 (51 of 1993) and the rules made thereunder.”.

11. Insertion of new section 17A

After section 17 of the principal Act, the following section shall be inserted, namely:–

“17A. Making of application to Court of District Judge in certain cases

In the case of a borrower residing in the State of Jammu and Kashmir, the application under section 17 shall be made to the Court of District Judge in that State having jurisdiction over the borrower which shall pass an order on such application.

Explanation : For the removal of doubts, it is hereby declared that the communication of the reasons to the borrower by the secured creditor for not having accepted his representation or objection or the likely action of the secured creditor at the stage of communication of reasons shall not entitle the person (including borrower) to make an application to the Court of District Judge under this section.”.

12. Amendment of section 18

In section 18 of the principal Act,–

(a)    in sub-section (1),–

(i)         for the words and figures “under section 17, may prefer an appeal”, the words and figures “under section 17, may prefer an appeal along with such fee, as may be prescribed” shall be substituted and shall be deemed to have been substituted with effect from the 21st day of June, 2002;

(ii)         after sub-section (1), the following proviso shall be inserted and shall be deemed to have been inserted with effect from the 21st day of June, 2002, namely:–

“PROVIDED that different fees may be prescribed for filing an appeal by the borrower or by the person other than the borrower;”;

(iii)        after the proviso as so inserted, the following provisos shall be inserted, namely:–

“PROVIDED FURTHER that no appeal shall be entertained unless the borrower has deposited with the Appellate Tribunal fifty per cent. of the amount of debt due from him, as claimed by the secured creditors or determined by the Debts Recovery Tribunal, whichever is less:

PROVIDED ALSO that the Appellate Tribunal may, for the reasons to be recorded in writing, reduce the amount to not less than twenty-five per cent of debt referred to in the second proviso.”.

13. Insertion of new sections 18A and 18B

After section 18 of the principal Act, the following sections shall be inserted, namely:–

“18A. Validation of fees levied

Any fee levied and collected for preferring, before the commencement of the Enforcement of Security Interest and Recovery of Debts Laws (Amendment) Act, 2004, an appeal to the Debts Recovery Tribunal or the Appellate Tribunal under this Act, shall be deemed always to have been levied and collected in accordance with law as if the amendments made to sections 17 and 18 of this Act by sections 10 and 12 of the said Act were in force at all material times.

18B. Appeal to High Court in certain cases

Any borrower residing in the State of Jammu and Kashmir and aggrieved by any order made by the Court of District Judge under section 17A may prefer an appeal, to the High Court having jurisdiction over such Court, within thirty days from the date of receipt of the order of the Court of District Judge:

PROVIDED that no appeal shall be preferred unless the borrower has deposited, with the Jammu and Kashmir High Court, fifty per cent. of the amount of the debt due from him as claimed by the secured creditor or determined by the Court of District Judge, whichever is less:

PROVIDED FURTHER that the High Court may, for the reasons to be recorded in writing, reduce the amount to not less than twenty-five per cent. of the debt referred to in the first proviso.”.

14. Substitution of new section for section 19

For section 19 of the principal Act, the following section shall be substituted, namely:–

“19. Right of borrower to receive compensation and costs in certain cases

If the Debts Recovery Tribunal or the Court of District Judge, on an application made under section 17 or section 17A or the Appellate Tribunal or the High Court on an appeal preferred under section 18 or section 18A, holds that the possession of secured assets by the secured creditor is not in accordance with the provisions of this Act and rules made thereunder and directs the secured creditors to return such secured assets to the concerned borrowers, such borrower shall be entitled to the payment of such compensation and costs as may be determined by such Tribunal or Court of District Judge or Appellate Tribunal or the High Court referred to in section 18B.”.

15. Amendment of section 25

In section 25 of the principal Act,–

(a)        after sub-section (1), the following sub-section shall be inserted, namely:–

“(1A) On receipt of intimation under sub-section (1), the Central Registrar shall order that a memorandum of satisfaction shall be entered in the Central Register.”;

(b)        in sub-section (2), for the words “The Central Registrar shall, on receipt of such intimation”, the words, brackets and figures “If the concerned borrower gives an intimation to the Central Registrar for not recording the payment or satisfaction referred to in sub-section (1), the Central Registrar shall on receipt of such intimation” shall be substituted.

16. Amendment of section 28

In section 28 of the principal Act, for the words and figures “under section 12”, the words, figures and letter “under section 12 or section 12A” shall be substituted.

17. Amendment of section 31

In section 31 of the principal Act, in clause (g), for the words “any properties not liable to attachment”, the words and brackets “any properties not liable to attachment (excluding the properties specifically charged with the debt recoverable under this Act)” shall be substituted.

18. Amendment of section 38

In section 38 of the principal Act, in sub-section (2), after clause (b), the following clauses shall be inserted, namely:–

“(ba)      the fee for making an application to the Debts Recovery Tribunal under sub-section (1) of section 17;

 (bb)       the form of making an application to the Appellate Tribunal under sub-section (6) of section 17;

 (bc)       the fee for preferring an appeal to the Appellate Tribunal under sub-section (1) of section 18;”.


CHAPTER III

AMENDMENTS TO THE RECOVERY OF DEBTS DUE TO BANKS AND
FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS ACT, 1993

19. Amendment of section 2

In section 2 of the Recovery of Debts Due to Banks and Financial Institutions Act, 1993 (51 of 1993) (hereafter in this Chapter referred to as the principal Act), in clause (h), after sub-clause (i), the following sub-clause shall be inserted namely:–

“(ia) the securitisation company or reconstruction company which has obtained a certificate of registration under sub-section (4) of section 3 of the Securitisation and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest Act, 2002;”.

20. Amendment of section 19

In section 19 of the principal Act, after sub-section (1), the following provisos shall  be inserted, namely:–

“PROVIDED that the bank or financial institution may, with the permission of the Debts Recovery Tribunal, on an application made by it, withdraw the application, whether made before or after the Enforcement of Security Interest and Recovery of Debts Laws (Amendment) Act, 2004 for the purpose of taking action under the Securitisation and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest Act, 2002, if no such action had been taken earlier under that Act:

PROVIDED FURTHER that any application made under the first proviso for seeking permission from the Debts Recovery Tribunal to withdraw the application made under sub-section (1) shall be dealt with by it as expeditiously as possible and disposed of within thirty days from the date of such application:

PROVIDED ALSO that in case the Debts Recovery Tribunal refuses to grant permission for withdrawal of the application filed under this sub-section, it shall pass such orders after recording the reasons therefor.”.


CHAPTER IV

AMENDMENTS TO THE COMPANIES ACT, 1956

21. Amendment of section 4A

In section 4A of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956) (hereafter in this Chapter referred to as the principal Act), in sub-section (1), clause (vii) shall be omitted.

22. Amendment of section 424A

In section 424A of the principal Act, in sub-section (1), after the second proviso, the following provisos shall be inserted, namely:–

“PROVIDED ALSO that in case any reference had been made before the Tribunal and a scheme for revival and rehabilitation submitted before the commencement of the Enforcement of Security Interest and Recovery of Debts Laws (Amendment) Act, 2004, such reference shall abate if the secured creditors representing three-fourth in value of the amount outstanding against financial assistance disbursed to the borrower have taken measures to recover their secured debt under sub-section (4) of section 13 of the Securitisation and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest Act, 2002:

PROVIDED ALSO that no reference shall be made under this section if the secured creditors representing three-fourth in value of the amount outstanding against financial assistance disbursed to the borrower have taken measures to recover their secured debt under sub-section (4) of section 13 of the Securitisation and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement Security Interest Act, 2002.”.


CHAPTER V

REPEAL AND SAVING

23. Repeal and saving

(1) The Enforcement of Security Interest and Recovery of Debts Laws (Amendment) Ordinance, 2004 (5 of 2004) is hereby repealed.

(2) Notwithstanding such repeal, anything done or any action taken under the Securitisation and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest Act, 2002 (54 of 2002) and the Recovery of Debts Due to Banks and Financial Institutions Act, 1993 (51 of 1993) and the Companies Act, 1956, (1 of 1956) as amended by the said Ordinance, shall be deemed to have been done or taken under the corresponding provisions of those Acts, as amended by this Act.

STATEMENT OF OBJECTS AND REASONS

The Securitisation and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest Act, 2002 was enacted to regulate securitisation and reconstruction of financial assets and enforcement of security interest and for matters connected thereto. The Act enables the banks and financial institutions to realise long-term assets, manage problems of liquidity, asset liability mis-match and improve recovery by exercising powers to take possession of securities, sell them and reduce non-performing assets by adopting measures for recovery or reconstruction. The Act further provides for setting up of asset reconstruction companies which are empowered to take possession of secured assets of the borrower including the right to transfer by way of lease, assignment or sale and realise the secured assets and take over the management of the business of the borrower.

2. The Hon’ble Supreme Court, in the case of Mardia Chemicals Ltd. and Others v. Union of India and Others, inter alia,–

(a)        upheld the validity of the provisions of the said Act except that of sub-section (2) of section 17 which was declared ultra vires article 14 of the Constitution.  The said sub-section provides for deposit of seventy-five per cent. of the amount claimed before entertaining an appeal (petition) by the Debts Recovery Tribunal (DRT) under section 17;

(b)        observed that in cases where a secured creditor has taken action under sub-section (4) of section 13 of the said Act, it would be open to borrowers to file appeals under section 17 of the Act within the limitation as prescribed therefor. It also observed that if the borrower, after service of notice under sub-section (2) of section 13 of the said Act, raises any objection or places facts for consideration of the secured creditor, such reply to the notice must be considered with due application of mind and the reasons for not accepting the objections, howsoever brief they may be, must be communicated to the borrower.  The reasons so communicated shall only be for the purposes of the information/knowledge of the borrower without giving rise to any right to approach the Debts Recovery Tribunal under section 17 of the Act, at that stage.

3. In view of the above judgment of the Hon’ble Supreme Court and also to discourage the borrowers to postpone the repayment of their dues and also enable the secured creditor to speedily recover their debts, if required, by enforcement of security or other measures specified in sub-section (4) of section 13 of the said Act, it had become necessary to amend the provisions of the said Act.

4. Since the Parliament was not in session and it was necessary to take immediate action to amend the said Act for the above reasons, the Enforcement of Security Interest and Recovery of Debts Laws (Amendment) Ordinance, 2004 was promulgated on the 11th November, 2004.

5. The said Ordinance amends the Securitisation and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest Act, 2002, the Recovery of Debts Due to Banks and Financial Institutions Act, 1993 and the Companies Act, 1956. Chapter II of the Ordinance which amends the Securitisation and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest Act, 2002,–

(a)        require the secured creditor to consider, in response to the notice issued by the secured creditor under sub-section (2) of section 13 of the said Act, any representation made or objection raised by the borrower and cast an obligation upon the secured creditor to communicate within one week of receipt of such representation or objection the reasons for non-acceptance of the representation or objection to the borrower and take possession of the secured asset only after reasons for not accepting the objections of the borrower have been communicated to him in writing;

(b)        enable the borrower to make an application before  the Debts Recovery Tribunal without making any deposit (instead of filing an appeal before the Debts Recovery Tribunal after depositing seventy-five per cent. of the amount claimed with the notice by the secured creditor);

(c)        provides that the Debts Recovery Tribunal shall dispose of the application as expeditiously as possible and dispose of such application within sixty days from the date of such applications so that the total period of pendency of the application with such Tribunal shall not exceed four months;

(d)        make provision for transfer of pending applications to any one of the Debts Recovery Tribunal in certain cases;

(e)        enables any person aggrieved by any order made by the Debts Recovery Tribunal to file an appeal to the Debts Recovery Appellate Tribunal after depositing with the Appellate Tribunal fifty per cent. of amount of debt due from him, as claimed by the secured creditor or determined by the Debts Recovery Tribunal, whichever is less;

(f)         enables the borrower residing in the State of Jammu and Kashmir to make an application to the Court of District Judge in that State having jurisdiction over the borrower and make provision for filing an appeal to the High Court from the order of the Court of District Judge;

(g)        makes provision for validation of the fees levied under the said Act before the commencement of this Ordinance.

6. Chapter III of the Ordinance amends the Recovery of Debts Due to Banks and Financial Institutions Act, 1993 so as to enable the bank or financial institution to withdraw, with the permission of the Debts Recovery Tribunal, the application made to it and thereafter take action under the Securitisation and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest Act, 2002.

7. Chapter IV of the Ordinance amends the Companies Act, 1956 so as to provide that any reference made under section 424A of that Act shall abate if the secured creditors representing three-fourth in value of the amount outstanding against financial assistance disbursed to the borrower have taken measures to recover their secured debt under sub-section (4) of section 13 of the Securitisation and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest Act, 2002.

8. The Bill seeks to replace the aforesaid Ordinance.

Schedule

New Delhi,                                           P. CHIDAMBARAM
The 29th November, 2004

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